Assessment instruments and methods are the tools used by the teacher to obtain evidence of the students’ performances in a teaching and learning process.
The instruments are an aid to obtain data and information regarding the student, so the teacher must pay close attention to the quality of these as an inappropriate tool distorts reality.
The teacher requires qualitative and quantitative information for which he uses the most representative instruments with their methods, that is, the test that most appropriately applies to the student’s abilities, the subject to be evaluated, and gives the results that the teacher needs to establish the level of student learning.
The techniques refer to the method of evaluating and the instrument for the type of test. For example: in the interrogation technique, the tools or checks can be the questionnaire, the interview, and the self-evaluation. That is why the teacher must select the Evaluation Techniques and Instruments that contribute to guaranteeing the permanent construction of learning.
Evaluation Techniques And Instruments Provide Us With Valuable Information.
The evaluation cannot be reduced to verifying the results but must expand its field to provide students with information about their learning, and to the teacher elements of analysis of their teaching practice. The evaluation is a fundamental element of the research – action that must be carried out in the classroom, and that is a requirement of the teacher’s role.
- – To evaluate the acquisition of the conceptual contents, instruments will be used that inform us about the level of assimilation of those contents: verify that the student can identify, recognize, classify, compare, explain, remember, enumerate, apply, etc. Actions in which the student shows the learning of a concept, a fact, or a principle.
- – To assess the mastery of procedural content, we must use instruments that allow us to verify how the student is acquiring specific skills: check how the student can handle, manipulate, build, use, reconstruct, test, execute, move, simulate, etc. Attitudes in which the student manifests the domain achieved in the field of procedural content.
- – To assess the development of attitudinal materials and values, we need observation instruments that allow us to appreciate the evolution of the student concerning behavioral and attitudinal aspects. Observe how the student is achieving habits of respect, tolerate, share, understand, accept, realize, sensitize, correspond to behaviors in which the student shows the possession of attitudes and values that are part of the attitudinal contents.
Evaluation process and instrument selection
The challenge is, then, in developing evaluation strategies that respond, in particular, to integration and interpretation of knowledge and a transfer of said knowledge to other contexts. Read More Premium Graduate Placements
Eisner (1993, pp. 226-232) raises some principles that we believe are relevant to take into account to better understand the process of evaluation and selection of instruments. For him, the assessment must:
- · Reflect real-world needs, increasing problem solving, and meaning building skills.
- · Show how students solve problems and not only attend to the final product of a task since the reasoning determines the ability to transfer learning.
- · Reflect the values of the intellectual community.
- · It should not be limited to individual execution since life requires the ability to work in a team.
- · Allow having more than one way of doing things since real-life situations rarely have only one correct alternative.
- · Promote the transfer of tasks that require learning tools to be used intelligently. Require that students understand the whole, not just the parts.
- · Allow students to choose a form of response with which they feel comfortable.
To the extent that the planned objectives are achieved, we can limit the use of objective tests and traditional exams as the only tools to evaluate students. Observation, interviews, quizzes, surveys, etc. They should be used to the extent that they provide the teacher with a continuous and adequate knowledge of the student’s progress and allow him to assess the quality and degree of learning at all times.
Some evaluation instruments are:
- * Estimation scale
- * Tests
- * Briefcase
- * Projects
- * Monographs, etc.
Procedures for selecting and developing evaluation techniques and instruments
- * Identify the purpose
- * Define the contents
- * Select method
- * Prepare the instruction
- * Prepare the test or tool
- * Test application
- * Correction of the answers or elaborated products.
Should traditional exams be changed?
Critics argue that traditional fixed-response exams do not give a clear and truthful view of what students can bring with their knowledge, they only allow to recall, observe the understanding or interpretation of education but do not demonstrate the ability to use instruction.
Frequently the result of the evaluations is used only to award a note to the participants and not re-enter the teaching and learning strategies to improve the efforts.
Education depends on the development of a country, so teachers are key players in the advances in the teaching-learning process.
To optimize knowledge about evaluation techniques and instruments, we invite you to our Master in Evaluation and Accreditation of Educational Quality.